PRODUCTION TIPS: Use Interns in Your Productions the RIGHT Way... Or Else

The Black Swan case and the Casting Society of America's recent announcement to cease internship job postings reflects a new world when it comes to using interns in the entertainment industry.  The federal and state labor laws are pretty straightforward when it comes to interns, “If the employer would have hired additional employees or required existing staff to work additional hours had the interns not performed the work, then the interns will be viewed as employees and entitled to compensation under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).”   

Although it might seem unfair and a break from tradition to producers who remember the good ol' days(?!) when they were the interns themselves or who mean no harm because they are just trying to save as much money as possible for the benefit of the production, it really isn't. Using interns is not an excuse to save money or an opportunity to use free labor, it is an opportunity to teach and hone new talent while giving them the chance to learn about the business. To understand this point let's unpack the labor issues a bit.  U.S. federal law states that every employee is entitled to a minimum wage plus addition compensation for overtime and certain other benefits like worker's compensation and discrimination laws that protect them.  One way to avoid this obligation to the employee under federal law is to declaring the person an intern/trainee.  According to the US Supreme Court in Walling v. Portland Terminal Co., the main point is that the intern is a person who is working for their OWN benefit not that of the company.

The Court considered the following six factors in declaring a person's status as an intern:

  1. The internship, even though it includes actual operation of the facilities of the employer, is similar to training which would be given in an educational environment.
  2. The internship experience is for the benefit of the intern.
  3. The intern does not displace regular employees, but works under close supervision of existing staff.
  4. The employer that provides the training derives no immediate advantage from the activities of the intern; and on occasion its operations may actually be impeded.
  5. The intern is not necessarily entitled to a job at the conclusion of the internship.
  6. The employer and the intern understand that the intern is not entitled to wages for the time spent in the internship.

The Department of Labor requires all six factors to be met.  Your production company should have agreements in place that ensure the factors are met while being proactive and diligent in making sure that they are not disregarded.  The burden is on the company to make sure that the conditions for an internship have been met.  The federal and state laws are many and sometimes vague but it is up to the production companies to do what they can to learn about them and how to comply with them if they seek to hire interns. 


Legal information is not the same as legal advice.
This site provides information about the business and the law of filmmaking and the entertainment industry designed to help users safely cope with their own business and legal needs. But legal information is not the same as legal advice -- the application of law to an individual's specific circumstances. Although I go to great lengths to make sure my information is accurate and useful, I recommend you contact me personally or consult another lawyer with details regarding your circumstances if you want professional assurance that my information, and your interpretation of it, is appropriate to your particular situation.

PRODUCTION JOURNAL: Midweek Morning Mixer - 2.5.14 (United Artists edition)

My apologies for the temporary disappearance of the Monday and Midweek Mixers, I have been busy working with clients and developing projects for 2014 that rendered me unable to blog.  Although I love searching for informative and fun stuff to add to the mixers, it's time-consuming so I can only squeeze them in whenever I can.  Still, as busy as I get, I will do my best to continue to do so.

And now without further adieu...

Today in film history let's remember...

Taking a cue from the formation of United Artists is a good reminder of the good work that can result when talented filmmakers get together. BUT, no matter how much talent is collected or how many good intentions they possess, your team also needs to have an effective strategy that can negotiate business and legal obstacles with as much deftness and creativity as you overcome your artistic obstacles.  Therein lies the key to success and longevity.

WRITING: Why are all screenwriting books a con?

PRODUCING: What are 17 ways to improve your chances of making it big with your film?

FINANCING: Will Congress do something about the production tax credit that expired in 2013? 

DIRECTING: What should you do after you yell cut?

SHOOTING: Which cameras were used by the 2014 Sundance filmmakers? by Oscar nominees?

LIGHTING: How does LED lighting change the way cities look on film?

SOUND: What should you know about location recording for a short film? (paywall)

STUNTS & VFX: What are the most complex and insane stunts in sci-fi movies and how did they pull them off?

EDITING: What should every editor know about motion graphics?

DISTRIBUTION: What are some good pieces of advice to get distribution in 2014?

MARKETING: Are one night event screenings successful for a film?

LEGAL: What are the different legal scenarios to overcome to get that music in your film?

The COVID-19 “Get Back to Filmmaking” Checklist

The COVID-19 “Get Back to Filmmaking” Checklist A 40-point checklist from development to post-production   by Danny Jiminian