Case Study:

Using Script Coverage to Get Name Talent.

Script to Screen

Fusion's Open Call For TV Projects is a Push for Diverse Voices.

Case Study

When To Say No To A Film Festival

Case Study

The Full Costs and Income of an Indie Film

The Production / Filmmakers Toolkit

Documents, Templates and Resources for Every Phase of Production.


CASE STUDY: What To Do As A Filmmaker With The PWC "Filmed Entertainment" 2015-2019 Data

In his Art of War, Sun Tzu wisely counseled, "Assess the advantages in taking advice, then structure your forces, accordingly to supplement extraordinary tactics." With that kernel of wisdom in mind, I looked at this year's Pricewaterhouse Coopers Global Entertainment and Media Outlook 2015-2019 and studied their summary of "Filmed Entertainment." Although I have not read the full report, the summary provides plenty food for thought so I asked myself what would I do with this data as a filmmaker? My answers are below labeled, "The Film Strategy tip." Let me know what you would do with that data.

Note, I have not purchased the full report and I am only basing this on the insights they published. But even those short insights are revealing.
  1. Growth around the world will boost filmed entertainment revenue. Global total filmed entertainment revenue will rise at a 4.1% CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) to 2019, reaching US$104.62bn. Particularly strong growth will be seen in China (14.5% CAGR) and in Latin America thanks to a 6.1% CAGR in Brazil and 11.5% CAGR in Argentina, but even global leader the US, with 33.0% of the total market in 2014, will see above-average growth of 4.6% CAGR.
    • The Film Strategy tip: In the next 5 years try to shoot a co-production in Latin America, China or Nigeria OR cast your film with well-known actors from Latin America, China or Nigeria. An international cast in a co-production can be a two-fer; 1) you might be able to get the actors at a good rate for the prestige of working on a US production and 2) with the possibility of production incentives and the expected growth, your film stands a decent chance of making money for you and your investors.
  2. Global box office will be driven by local films as well as Hollywood fare. Global box office revenue will rise at a CAGR of 5.7% to US$48.45bn in 2019, from US$36.70bn in 2014. But one trend noticeable everywhere from China to Western Europe is the significance of local films in boosting country box office revenue, and while Hollywood still dominates, local films will increasingly make an impact.
    • The Film Strategy tip: The good news is that a small film can go global. The bad news, if you can call it that, is that it will most likely be a genre film like horror or action with minimal dialogue to make it easy for audiences across different languages. On the other hand, again, consider co-productions again. A small film in the US might go nowhere beyond the film festival circuit. However, a small film co-produced in, say Colombia, might not only generate box office it could also gain a following as a "foreign film." I don't know why but movie audiences tend to more easily accept complexity in a film if it is "foreign" instead if it is domestic.
  3. China’s box office growth will see it pull ever nearer to the US. China’s box office revenue is forecast to rise at a 15.5% CAGR, its growth outstripping that of every other market surveyed. China’s box office revenue will thus move from US$4.31bn in 2014 to US$8.86bn in 2019 as its cinema-building boom continues and rising disposable incomes make the cinema more affordable.
    • The Film Strategy tip: As China continues to grow, it will continue to not only compete with Hollywood but also buy up Hollywood. Will this mean less piracy as China's studios tie up their finances with Hollywood? Does this mean branded entertainment that is globally recognizable like Marvel's comic books and Star Wars will continue to dominate the box office? Will this mean China's intellectual property will be ripe for use and development in the US the way Haim Saban took old Japanese stock footage and made the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers? Essentially all I have are questions but it means that if you're in the film industry you will read more about what China is doing and what China's audiences watch.
  4. Physical home video revenue continues on a downward trajectory. Global total physical home video revenue will decline from US$30.78bn in 2014 to US$22.81bn in 2019 at a -5.8% CAGR. With 52 of 54 territories recording a decline, the factors contributing to this—including the reduction in “bricks and mortar” video stores and the rise of electronic alternatives—only look set to strengthen.
    • The Film Strategy tip: You can not depend on DVD sales anymore. The physical disc is being relegated to use for the art video market (as a way to keep track of authorized artwork versions) and use as part of a merchandising package for well-known brands (think of a Star Wars set with the discs in a box shaped like Darth Vader's helmet). 
    • This is borne out by a Bloomberg report too. According to BloombergBusiness: "Online Video Revenue to Pass DVDs This Year, Theaters in 2017"
      Spending on movie downloads and video streaming subscriptions in the U.S. will surpass purchases and rentals of DVDs for the first time this year, according to a report Tuesday from Pricewaterhouse Coopers LLP. 
      Electronic home-video revenue will climb 13 percent to $9.5 billion this year, while physical sales drop to $7.8 billion, the consulting firm said. By 2017, the electronic revenue will reach $12 billion, at which point it will exceed the U.S. film box office, according to the report. 
      The accounting firm’s annual outlook for media and entertainment shows that while overall spending will continue to climb, technological shifts in the way content is delivered are creating winners and losers. 
      Music streaming, for example, will overtake the still relatively new business of digital purchases of songs by 2018. Digital revenue will account for 45 percent of all spending on books by that date. 
      Global media and entertainment revenue is predicted to rise at a 5.1 percent annual rate through 2019, reaching $2.23 trillion, the company said. 
  5. Electronic home video revenue will nearly double over the forecast period. Global electronic home video revenue is set to rise from US$15.28bn in 2014 to US$30.29bn in 2019. Total electronic home video OTT/streaming revenue in particular is seeing a CAGR of 19.0% as online video and streaming services are beginning to attain a significant foothold in many markets.
    • The Film Strategy tip: Pay attention to your contracts. What is your take of the internet streaming, home video OTT and VOD pie? Plan your movie to have a web and mobile  presence from the beginning so that you can capitalize on that later during distribution.
  6. Connected devices open up new video opportunities—and challenges. Smartphone connections are forecast to rise from 1.92bn in 2014 to 3.85bn in 2019. The proliferation of such connected devices among consumers will create both significant new opportunities and considerable challenges for companies creating and distributing filmed entertainment content.
    • The Film Strategy tip: Not only can you shoot a film with your phone (see Tangerine) but you can market and distribute your film using the phones and tablets. Study the market and pay attention to ways that filmmakers and others are using connected devices to get eyes on their works and build revenue.
Danny Jiminian is a producer and attorney who specializes in Entertainment Law, Intellectual Property, Business Law and Nonprofits and practices out of New York. For a free consultation, email him.

Matter included here or in linked websites may not be current. It is advisable to consult with a competent professional before relying on any written commentary. No attorney client relationship is established by the viewing, use, or communication in any manner through this web site. Nothing on this blog or blog posting is official legal advice; it is just information and opinion. But if you want to, you can visit my professional website and hire me at


SCRIPT TO SCREEN: Mad Max: Fury Road

Mad Max: Fury RoadGeorge Miller | 2015 | Australia, USA | Format: 35 mm (anamorphic) (Kodak Vision 2383), D-Cinema (also 3-D version)  | 120 min

Mad Max is essentially one long chase scene. But what a complicated and thrilling chase scene it is. It surprises me none to find out that George Miller, the director, created a storyboard comic book to map out the shooting of the film from logistics to aesthetics. Storyboards and concept art are important tools for filmmakers but even moreso for filmmakers making action movies.

Below is a compendium of links to articles on the making of Mad Max: Fury Road. Read, watch, enjoy but don't forget to take notes.

The making of Mad Max: Fury Road (according to Wikipedia)


Plans for a fourth film in the Mad Max series hit financial difficulties and the project spent several years in "development hell".[17] The idea for a fourth installment occurred to Miller in August 1998 when he was walking in an intersection in Los Angeles.[18] About a year later, while travelling from Los Angeles to Australia, the idea coalesced. Miller conceived of a story where "violent marauders were fighting, not for oil or for material goods, but for human beings."[18] The film was set to shoot in 2001 through 20th Century Fox, but was postponed because of the September 11 attacks that same year.[19] "The American dollar collapsed against the Australian dollar, and our budget ballooned," Miller said that he "had to move on to Happy Feet, because there was a small window when that was ready." Mel Gibson, who starred in the original three previous films, was also set to reprise his role as the lead character. Miller ended up re-casting the role because of controversies surrounding Gibson and because he wanted Max to remain at a younger age, as the "same contemporary warrior".[18] Miller announced in 2003 that a script had been written for a fourth film, and that pre-production was in the early stages.[20] Although the project was given the green light for a US$100 million budget to begin filming in Australia in May 2003, Mad Max 4 entered hiatus because of security concerns related to trying to film in Namibia because the United States and many other countries had tightened travel and shipping restrictions.[21] With the outbreak of the Iraq WarMad Max 4 was abandoned as it was considered a potentially politically sensitive film. Although Gibson had been cast to return as Max, he lost interest after production was cancelled.[21]

Director George Miller announced in 2003 that a script had been written for a fourth film, and that pre-production was in the early stages.
In November 2006, Miller stated that he intended to make Fury Road, and considered doing the film without Gibson: "There's a real hope. The last thing I wanted to do is another Mad Max, but this script came along, and I'm completely carried away with it."[22][23] The film's screenplay was co-written with cult British comic creator Brendan McCarthy, who also designed many of the new characters and vehicles.[24] Miller again confirmed his intention to make another Mad Max at the 2007 Aurora film maker initiative. However, he stated that he thought Gibson would not be interested in the film because of his age.[25][26] Heath Ledgerwas reportedly considered for the lead before he died from combined drug intoxication in 2008.[18] On 5 March 2009, it was announced that an R-rated 3D animated feature film was in pre-production and would be taking much of the plot from Fury Road,[27] although Gibson would not be in the film and Miller was looking for a "different route", a "renaissance" of the franchise.[27] Miller cited the film Akira as an inspiration for what he wanted to do with the franchise. Miller was also developing an action-adventure tie-in video game based on the fourth film, along with God of War II video game designer Cory Barlog. Both projects were expected to take two to two-and-a-half years, according to Miller, with a release date of either 2011 or 2012. Fury Road was going to be produced at Dr. D Studios, a digital art studios founded in 2008 by Miller and Doug Mitchell.[27]
On 18 May 2009, it was reported that location scouting was underway for Mad Max 4.[28] After exploring the possibility of an animated 3D film, Miller decided instead to shoot a 3D live action film.[28] By this time, production had moved to Warner Bros.[19]
In October 2009, Miller announced that principal photography on Fury Road would commence at Broken Hill, New South Wales in early 2011, ending years of speculation.[29] This announcement attracted widespread media attention in Australia, with speculation on whether Gibson would return as Max.[30] That same month, British actor Tom Hardy was in negotiations to take the lead role of Max, while it was also announced that Charlize Theron would play a major role in the film.[31] In June 2010, Hardy (who was just six weeks old when the originalMad Max began shooting) announced on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross that he would play the title role.[18][32] In July 2010, Miller announced plans to shoot twoMad Max films back-to-back, entitled Mad Max: Fury Road and Mad Max: Furiosa.[33] In November 2011, filming was moved from Broken Hill to Namibia, after unexpected heavy rains turned the desert there into a lush landscape of wildflowers, inappropriate for the look of the movie.[34]
In a July 2014 interview at San Diego Comic-Con International, Miller said he designed the film in storyboard form before writing the screenplay, working with five storyboard artists. It came out as about 3,500 panels, almost the same number of shots as in the finished film. He wanted the film to be almost a continuous chase, with relatively little dialogue, and to have the visuals come first.[35] Paraphrasing Alfred Hitchcock, Miller said that he wanted the film to be understood in Japan without the use of subtitles.[36]


Principal photography began in July 2012 in Namibia.[37] Filming also took place at Potts Hill and Penrith Lakes in Western Sydney.[38] In October 2012, The Hollywood Reporter reported that Warner Bros. sent an executive to keep the production on track.[39] The filming wrapped on 17 December 2012[40] and lasted for 120 days.[19] In February 2013, a leaked draft from the Namibian Coast Conservation and Management group accused the producers of damaging parts of theNamib Desert, endangering a number of plant and animal species.[41][42] However, the Namibia Film Commission said it had "no reservations" after visiting the set during production. It disputed claims reported in the media, calling the accusations "unjust rhetoric".[43] In September 2013, it was announced that the film would undergo reshoots in November 2013.[44]
Cinematographer John Seale, who came out of retirement to shoot Fury Road,[45] outfitted his camera crew with six Arri Alexa Pluses and four Alexa Ms, as well as a number of Canon EOS 5Ds and Olympus PEN E-P5s that were used as crash cams for the action sequences.[46][47]
In July 2014, director George Miller described the film as "a very simple allegory, almost a western on wheels".[48] Miller said that 90% of the effects werepractical.[49] Second unit director and supervising stunt coordinator Guy Norris was in charge of over 150 stunt performers, which included Cirque du Soleilperformers and Olympic athletes.[45][50] Miller invited playwright Eve Ensler to act as an on-set adviser. Impressed with the script's depth and what she saw as feminist themes, she spent a week in Namibia, where she spoke to the actors about issues of violence against women.[51]


The lead visual effects company for Mad Max: Fury Road was Iloura, who delivered more than 1,500 effects shots for the film.[52] Additional visual effects studios that worked on the film include Method Studios, Stereo D, 4DMax, BlackGinger, The Third Floor, and Dr. D Studios.[53][54] The film contains about 2,700 cuts of its entire running length, which is equivalent to 22.5 cuts per minute compared The Road Warrior's 1,200 cuts of its 90-minute running time equivalent to 13.33 cuts per minute.[55] The frame rate was also manipulated. "Something like 50 or 60 percent of the film is not running at 24 frames a second, which is the traditional frame rate," said Seale. "It'll be running below 24 frames because George, if he couldn't understand what was happening in the shot, he slowed it down until you could. Or if it was too well understood, he'd shorten it or he'd speed it up back towards 24. His manipulation of every shot in that movie is intense."[56]
The extensive effects work included altering lighting and time of day, weather effects, terrain replacement, and plate composition.[57] Night scenes were filmed in bright daylight, deliberately overexposed, and color-manipulated. In many shots, the sky was digitally replaced with more detailed or interesting skies. Charlize Theron wore a green cover over her left arm to aid effects artists in digitally removing her arm from her scenes.
Weta Digital was originally involved with the film when it was scheduled for a 2012 release.[58] The company was to be handling visual effects, conceptual designs, specialty make-up effects, and costume designs until production was postponed from its November 2010 start date.[59]


The musical score for Mad Max: Fury Road was written by the Dutch composer Junkie XL.[60] Prior to Junkie XL's involvement, John Powell and Marco Beltramiwere attached at separate times to score the film.[61][62] After hearing Junkie XL's score for 300: Rise of an Empire,[63] Miller met with the composer in Sydney. "I got very inspired and started writing pieces of music for scenes," said Junkie XL. "The initial main themes were written in the four weeks after that first meeting and those themes never changed."[64] A soundtrack album was released by WaterTower Music on 12 May 2015.[65]

Mad Max: Fury Road: Behind the Scenes and George Miller interview

WIRED: What It Takes To Make The Most Intense Movie Ever

Despite the advances in CG, you shot Fury Road as much as possible in-camera with practical effects. Why?
It’s not a fantasy film. It doesn’t have dragons and spaceships. It’s a film very rooted to Earth. A kind of crazy demented quality to everyone’s behavior arises out of this extreme, elemental, post­apocalyptic world. We needed to make it feel as real as possible.

A Look At Mad Max: Fury Road Storyboards

Mad Max: Fury Road Concept Art

Mad Max: Fury Road Set Photos

The Editing of MAD MAX: Fury Road

One of the many reasons MAD MAX: FURY ROAD is so successful as an action film is the editing style. By using “Eye Trace” and “Crosshair Framing” techniques during the shooting, the editor could keep the important visual information vital in one spot…the Center of the Frame. Because almost every shot was center framed, comprehending the action requires no hunting of each new shot for the point of interest. The viewer doesn’t need 3 or 4 frames to figure out where to look. It’s like watching an old hand-drawn flip book whiz by. The focus is always in the same spot!

Mad Max: Center Framed from Vashi Nedomansky on Vimeo.

“Eye Trace” is another editing technique that posits that you can guide the viewers eye and make them look where you want. By using motion in frame and/or positioning critical points of focus in successive shots to fall on a natural or comfortable area of the screen. An arrow shot from a bow flying left to right on screen of one shot…will seamlessly cut with a whip pan into the next shot that has a target and an arrow already stuck into it still quivering from the impact. Your eye is tracking the arrow left to right and your brain expects it to hit somewhere on the right side of the screen in the next shot. The viewer never sees the arrow make contact and doesn’t need to. A properly placed sound effect will convey the energy and impact. Apply this same technique to the punches, gunshots, spears, car crashes or any other shot in MAD MAX:Fury Road and you can see how much easier it makes the action to follow. 

'Mad Max: Fury Road' - Stop the Presses! A Woman Edits an Action Film


Meet The Colourist Eric Whipp

Making of Mad Max: Fury Road from ACS Victoria with John Seale ACS ASC and David Burr ACS

Crafting Mad Max: Fury Road’s more than 2,000 visual effects shots (saved one of the best articles for last - Danny Indio)

Original plate filmed in Namibia.
Final shot by Iloura.


PRODUCTION JOURNAL: Cannes Round-up 2015

The 68th annual Cannes Film Festival was held from 13 to 24 May 2015. Joel and Ethan Coen were announced as the Presidents of the Jury for the main competition. It was the first time that two people chaired the jury. Since the Coen brothers each received a separate vote, they were joined by seven other jurors to form the customary nine-juror panel. The Palme d'Or was awarded to the French film Dheepan directed by Jacques AudiardFrench film director Agnès Varda was presented with the honorary Palme d'Or at the festival's closing ceremony. She is also the first female filmmaker to ever receive the award.


Main Competition

The selections for the jury were the following:
English titleOriginal titleDirector(s)Production country
Dheepan DheepanJacques AudiardFrance
The Measure of a ManLa Loi du marchéStéphane BrizéFrance
Marguerite & JulienMarguerite et JulienValérie DonzelliFrance
ChronicChronicMichel FrancoMexico, United States
Tale of TalesIl racconto dei raccontiMatteo GarroneItaly, France, United Kingdom
CarolCarolTodd HaynesUnited Kingdom, United States
The Assassin聶隱娘 Nie Yin NiangHou Hsiao-hsienTaiwan, China, Hong Kong, France
Mountains May Depart山河故人 Shan He Gu RenJia ZhangkeChina, Japan, France
Our Little Sister海街diary Umimachi DiaryHirokazu KoreedaJapan
MacbethMacbethJustin KurzelUnited Kingdom, France, United States
The LobsterThe LobsterYorgos LanthimosGreece, France, Ireland, Netherlands, United Kingdom
Mon roiMon roiMaïwennFrance
My MotherMia madreNanni MorettiItaly
Son of Saul Saul fiaLászló NemesHungary
Valley of LoveLa Vallée de l'amourGuillaume NiclouxFrance
YouthLa giovinezzaPaolo SorrentinoItaly, France, Switzerland, United Kingdom
Louder Than BombsLouder Than BombsJoachim TrierNorway, France, Denmark, United States
The Sea of TreesThe Sea of TreesGus Van SantUnited States
SicarioSicarioDenis VilleneuveUnited States
In Competition winners 

Un Certain Regard

The selections for the jury were the following:
English titleOriginal titleDirector(s)Production country
Fly Away Solo MasaanNeeraj GhaywanIndia
Rams HrútarGrímur HákonarsonIceland
Sweet Red Bean Pasteあん AnNaomi KawaseJapan
Journey to the Shore岸辺の旅 Kishibe no tabiKiyoshi KurosawaJapan
I Am a Soldier Je suis un soldatLaurent LarivièreFrance, Belgium
The High SunZvizdanDalibor MatanićCroatia, Slovenia
TrapTaklubBrillante MendozaPhilippines
The Other SideThe Other SideRoberto MinerviniUnited States, Italy
One Floor BelowUn etaj mai josRadu MunteanRomania
The Shameless무뢰한 MuroehanOh Seung-ukSouth Korea
The Chosen OnesLas elegidasDavid PablosMexico
Nahid ناهید NahidIda PanahandehIran
The TreasureComoaraCorneliu PorumboiuRomania
Alias MariaAlias MaríaJosé Luis Rugeles GraciaColombia, Argentina, France
The Fourth DirectionChauthi KootGurvinder SinghIndia
Madonna마돈나Shin Su-wonSouth Korea
Cemetery of Splendourรักที่ขอนแก่น Rak Ti Khon KaenApichatpong WeerasethakulThailand
DisorderMarylandAlice WinocourFrance
Lamb LambYared ZelekeEthiopia, France, Germany, Norway
Un Certain Regard winners

Short Films

Out of 4,550 films the following were selected to compete:
English titleOriginal titleDirector(s)Production country
Waves '98 موج ٩٨ Moug 98Ely DagherLebanon, Qatar
The GuestsThe GuestsShane DanielsenAustralia
TuesdaySalıZiya DemirelTurkey, France
Sunday LunchLe Repas dominicalCéline DevauxFrance
Love Is BlindLove Is BlindDan HodgsonUnited Kingdom
Ave Mariaالسلام عليك يا مريم Assalammu 'aleiki ya MaryamBasil KhalilPalestine, France, Germany
BuddyCopainJan Roosens and Raf RoosensBelgium
PatriotPatriotEva RileyUnited Kingdom
Present ImperfectPresente imperfectoIair SaidArgentina
Short Films winner


Out of 1600 student school submissions, the following were selected:
English titleOriginal titleDirector(s)School
Slaughterhouseکشتارگاه KoshtargahBehzad AzadiArt University of Tehran, Iran
The Magnetic NatureEl ser mágneticoMateo BendeskyUniversidad del Cine, Argentina
Share SharePippa BiancoAFI Directing Workshop for Women, USA
ManomanManomanSimon CartwrightNational Film and Television School, UK
Victor XXVictor XXIan Garrido LópezESCAC, Spain
The Return of Erkinвозвращение Эркин Vozvrashenie ErkinaMaria GuskovaHigh Courses for Scriptwriters and Film Directors, Russia
LeonardoLeonardoFélix Hazeaux, Thomas Nitsche, Edward Noonan, Franck Pina, and Raphaëlle PlantierMOPA (formerly Supinfocom-Arles), France
Lost QueensLocas perdidasIgnacio Juricic MerillánCarrera de Cine y TV Universidad de Chile, Chile
TsunamiTsunamiSofie KampmarkThe Animation Workshop, Denmark
RetrieverRetrieverTomáš Klein and Tomáš MertaFAMU Prague, Czech Republic
The Wheel of EmotionsLes ChercheursAurélien PeillouxLa Fémis, France
AbsentAbwesendEliza Petkovadffb, Germany
Ten Buildings Awayעשרה רחובות, מאה עציםMiki PolonskiMinshar for Art, Israel
14 StepsЧетырнадцать шаговMaksim ShavkinMoscow School of New Cinema, Russia
AmphibianAnfibioHéctor Silva NúñezEICTV, Cuba
To Return UntilAinahan ne palaaSalla SorriAalto University-ELO Film School Helsinki Finland
ParadiseHet ParadijsLaura VandewynckelRITS School of Arts Brussels, Belgium
Under the Sun日光之下 Ri guang zhi xiaQiu YangThe VCA, Film & TV School, Melbourne University, Australia
Cinéfondation winners
  • First Prize – Share by Pippa Bianco
  • Second Prize – Lost Queens by Ignacio Juricic Merillán
  • Third Prize – The Return of Erkin by Maria Guskova and Victor XX by Ian Garrido López

Special mention: 
Golden Camera


Main Competition

Un Certain Regard

Cinéfondation and short film